Session 1.3 Individual presentations: Forest and Climate
Ida Wallin, Chair of Forest and Environmental policy, University of Freiburg
- Jens Friis Lund: The past, present and future in Natural Climate Solutions.
- Segun Michael: The Effect of Deforestation on Climate Change
- Eunkyoung Jang: Assessing effects of climate change mitigation of Harvested Wood Products according to accounting tier level of Tier 2 and Tier 3 in Republic of Korea.
- Anna Halldén: The role of forests in the climate discourse – a media analysis of Dagens Nyheter 2010-2019.
- Josiane Kakeu: REDD+ policy implementation and institutional interplay: Evidence from three pilot projects in Cameroon.
- Kaisa Korhonen-Kurki: Power of small wins? Realizing the transformative power of REDD+ in Indonesia, Vietnam and Brazil.
Kaisa Korhonen-Kurki, University of Helsinki
Power of small wins? Realizing the transformative power of REDD+ in Indonesia, Vietnam and Brazil.
Halting deforestation seems to be one of the most straightforward responses to the urgent need to mitigate CC. Yet, achieving this goal in an equitable manner needs transformative change in discursive practices, incentive structures and power relations. To facilitate required changes, several REDD+ policies and strategies were designed in the REDD+ countries during past ten years. In this paper, we will study what kind of transformative elements and signs there have been from the beginning of the REDD+ era until today. We base our analysis on the framework of “small wins”, “the smaller, yet potentially transformative changes of moderate importance” (Termeer & Metze 2019). Small wins are concrete, implemented and often incremental changes that can accumulate, scale up, broaden or deepen and create momentum for larger-scale changes. They can act as seeds for transformative change. Our earlier analysis (Korhonen-Kurki et al 2019) has shown that already initiated policies changes play a crucial role in setting the REDD+ policies and measures. In the small wins framework, non-linear complex system thinking replaces linear policy development approaches (Termeer & Dewulf 2019). We also examine if any “propelling mechanisms” were activated. We define propelling mechanisms as chains of events that reinforce themselves through feedback loops with an amplifying effect on an initial small change so that it becomes larger and stronger, or intensifies and escalates its consequences. Our material include extensive interview and survey material with key REDD+ actors from the years 2012, 2016, and 2019 from Indonesia, Vietnam and Brazil. Our preliminary observations show that various small wins, and their propelling mechanism can be, indeed, identified, yet their possible transformative power remains questionable.
Josiane Kakeu, University of Leeds
REDD+ policy implementation and institutional interplay: Evidence from three pilot projects in Cameroon.
There is evidence that institutions related to climate change and natural resource management influence each other’s performance, and that local settings also shape policy outcomes. We examine how policy implementation processes and institutional interactions affect the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) program in Cameroon. Research on REDD+ implementation has focused on resource tenure, benefit-sharing and participation, giving less attention to how implementation paradigms and other institutions affect REDD+. We combine a policy implementation framework with the theories of institutional interaction to examine how REDD+ implementation typologies, and interactions with forestry regulations, influence the outcomes of three REDD+ pilot projects in South and West Cameroon. Drawing from focus group discussions with project beneficiaries and interviews with local stakeholders and land-users, we find that REDD+ projects epitomize political implementation in the South and experimental implementation in the West. We also indicate how project outcomes have been affected by rules regarding community forests, reforestation and timber processing. Our findings suggest that policy designers’ ability to satisfy community preferences is important for projects’ outcomes in the South, and that resource availability and social capital are pivotal in the West. Incentives to promote local timber processing, improve forest governance and expedite decentralization would improve REDD+ project implementation in Cameroon.
Jens Friis Lund, University of Copenhagen
The past, present and future in Natural Climate Solutions.
Ideas about past and present shape the contours of what is seen as possible futures. This is acutely visible in debates about the possible solutions to climate change mitigation. In the wake of the recent surge in climate urgency in the global public imaginary, researchers, politicians, and carbon intensive industries have once again embraced “nature” as a prominent mitigation solution. Rolled up in these promises of an improved nature as climate solution are imaginaries about past, present and future. The past is problematized in terms of wastefulness and ignorance to chart out the potential and direction for projects of investment and improvement. The present is framed as a moment of possibility, of underutilized, vast empty spaces and improvement potentials to put nature to work for a greater good and multiple win-wins. And the future is enrolled as a carefully curated blend of dramatic transformations in that which must change, and continuities in that which cannot change. This exercise in conjuring up a problematic past, present potentiality and promising future to render possible and plausible some transformations, while obscuring others, is, of course, deeply political. Here I examine the imaginaries of past, present and future that underlie the promises of Natural Climate Solutions, seeking to write back in the politics that has been carefully edited out, or simply never made it into, the formulation of this concept.
Anna Halldén, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Economics
The role of forests in the climate discourse – a media analysis of Dagens Nyheter 2010-2019.
Media promotes certain understandings of issues when framing them. The way media portray issues, such as climate change, influence how the public perceive the issue and its solutions. As forests are both affected by and effecting climate change, the role of forests in the climate change issue is complex. A previous study revealed that media in Sweden has portrayed forests mainly as a victim of climate change (1992-2009). However, with increased political ambitions to substitute fossil-based materials and fuels with bio-based, the medias framing of the role of forests in the climate change issue might have changed. Which is why, a media analysis was conducted to study how the framing of the issue has developed over time.
421 articles published in Dagens Nyheter, the national newspaper most trusted by the Swedish people, from 2010 to 2019 were analyzed. 101 of these articles framed the relation between forests and climate change and were therefor further analyzed by identifying the actors framing the issue, along with how those actors portray the causer, victim and/or possible solutions of the issue.
Over the studied period the role of forests in the climate change issue was given more spacein Dagens Nyheter. The actors given a voice in media were mainly journalists and scientists, while the common forest stakeholders such as forest owners and environmental organisations were less frequent. Forests were categorized both as an evident victim and a prominent solution, this differ from the previous study and shows that medias framing, of forests role in the climate change issue, has shifted and become more diverse.
Eunkyoung Jang, Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Bioresources The Graduate School, Seoul National University
Assessing effects of climate change mitigation of Harvested Wood Products according to accounting tier level of Tier 2 and Tier 3 in Republic of Korea.
Carbon stored in HWP can be accounted in the balance sheet of GHGs national inventory. The accounting method of carbon stock can make a difference in the balance sheet. When accounting for the carbon stock of solid HWP, Tier 2 level applies the production data of domestic wood products grown in the country and the half-life of the global level based on sawn wood and wood-based panel. In applying the international half-life to 35 years for sawn wood and 25 years for wood-based panel, the accuracy of the account results will vary depending on how close the actual usage time of using the sawn wood and wood-based panel in the country is to the international level. Due to the uncertainty in the account results when applying international half-life to each country, most of Parties including Korea, postponed the decision to include the HWP carbon storage in the national greenhouse gas inventory under the National Determined Contribution (NDC). In order to increase the accuracy of the HWP account value, the IPCC 2014 guideline recommends applying a Tier 3 level account method that reflect specific half-life according to the input amount of industry in moving beyond Tier 2 method. In this study, wood production data and half-life for each Tier 2 and Tier 3 account level were applied differently to determine the difference in the HWP account results according to the two account methods, and to investigate the possibility of applying national inventory. As a result of the study, the climate change mitigation effects of sawn wood and wood-based panel produced from Korean domestic wood has a large difference in the results of each method according to Tier 2 and Tier 3 levels. This is due to the fact that there is a difference in the use pattern of sawn wood and wood-based panel in Korea from the international average half-life. In this study, by analyzing the difference in the amount of GHG reduction by HWP account method, it can contribute to achieving the national GHG reduction target by providing scientific information on the appropriate method for HWP account in the country.