Session 3.3 Individual presentations: Forest Land Use and Land Use Change
Daniela Kleinschmit, Chair of Forest and Environmental Policy, University of Freiburg
- Jon Geir Petursson: The political economy of forest governance, forest sector reforms and their outcomes in East Africa
Theresa Frei: Governing abandoned land? Perceptions and governance of natural forest regrowth in France and Spain
Nicholas Ndlovu: If Agroforestry is good enough, then why is it not being truly implemented? A review of institutional and policy research in agroforestry for the Southern African region
Aurelio Padovezi: Bridging social innovation with forest and landscape restoration.
Janina Priebe: How to change for global change: Finding reflexive leverage points in transdisciplinary research on climate change and forests in local contexts
Mi Sun Park and Hansol Lee: Regional capacity and governance structure in industrializing wild-simulated ginseng in the Republic of Korea
Jon Geir Petursson, University of Iceland
The political economy of forest governance, forest sector reforms and their outcomes in East Africa
Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania have in recent years entered reforms of their forest sector resulting in major changes and transformations in policies, institutional design, organizational structures and with significant impacts on land and forest resources. The forest reforms entered as a part of broader governance reforms undertaken in Africa in the 1990s, partly driven by hegemonic global actors and then funded and kept running by multiple donors under diverse conditionalities. Reforms followed similar paths in the three countries, initiated in Uganda. Many objectives of the reforms to stipulate sustainable forestry, reduce deforestation and advance delivery of multiple ecosystem services from the forest estate, however, have not materialized. The forest sector encompasses a nation’s forest resources, the environmental services they deliver, as well as the multiple institutions and organizations necessary for their governance. States allocate their forest estate into various governance systems, often shaped and defined by institutional structures such as property rights to land and policy objectives. Such governance systems are comprehensive systems of actors and their powers, institutions and forest resources and their interactions define and shape performance and outcomes. The study performs a comparative analysis of the main forest governance systems in the East African countries. It analyses multiple political and institutional factors that have contributed to their outcomes and identifies weaknesses to counter multiple environmental changes and societal drivers impacting the forest sector, despite its recent reforms. If current forest, environment and development policies in East Africa are going to materialize, the forest sector needs multiple changes to improve its governance.
Theresa Frei, European Forest Institute, Governance Programme
Governing abandoned land? Perceptions and governance of natural forest regrowth in France and Spain
Natural forest regrowth (NFR) on abandoned agricultural land is an important change in rural and peri-urban European landscapes, often caused by socioeconomic drivers, demographics, and policy related aspects. Posing challenges to the land management and governance in the regions concerned, this landscape transition has far-reaching ecological, economic, and societal consequences. It is a cross-cutting topic, touching upon crucial questions of the future of Europe’s small-scale agriculture, the rewilding of land, risks and opportunities in forestry, and finally a land management vision embracing various land uses. While NFR is often considered as challenge related to the loss of agriculture and heterogeneous landscapes, it is increasingly debated as an opportunity for restoration attempts.
Until now, NFR has not been widely discussed in (forest) policy analysis. My research focuses on France and Spain and address this topic by: (1) looking into perceptions of NFR at local level and (2) investigating governance approaches and strategic practices at regional/national level. The research is based on interpretive policy analysis, using qualitative social science methods and building on empirical data from almost 60 in-depth interviews with actors in the fields of agriculture, conservation, and forestry.
In the presentation I want to discuss the results, which show that NFR on abandoned land is (1) often negatively perceived by local actors, (2) usually poorly or not addressed at all at the policy level and (3) considered potentially beneficial by some actors related to new forest resource as well as for rewilding management. Additionally, a better integration of the sectors involved – namely agriculture, forestry and conservation – is considered key by actors in the field to address NFR at the policy level.
Nicholas Ndlovu, Chair of Forest and Environmental Policy, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
If Agroforestry is good enough, then why is it not being truly implemented? A review of institutional and policy research in agroforestry for the Southern African region
Agroforestry as a concept has evolved from the initial goal of contributing only to food production, into an approach saddled with diverse expectations. This is particularly a consequence of reframing the concept as an important development agenda. Nowadays, AF is linked with the potential to address several pressing land management problems, contribute to food security, generate diversified income for rural households; as well as enriching biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Despite these potentials and narratives of agroforestry, in southern Africa, the results of implementing agroforestry have been underwhelming as very few people are adopting the available innovations. Different studies assert that successful implementation will not only depend on the available agroforestry innovations but also on how the concept is institutionalised in national and local contexts. This study examines this notion and questions how research focused in the Southern African region has conferred institutional issues of AF. In particular, we examine the status of institutionalisation aspects in AF research. We also highlight the salient institutional and policy issues which research considers as critical in influencing the adoption and scaling up of agroforestry. Results show that whilst scientists and practitioners laude the concept and attach substantial potential to it; the policy and institutional dimensions of agroforestry remain murky. Policy and institutional dimensions of agroforestry are neither prominent in research nor is there evidence of a scientific interest aimed at the development of coherent theoretical frameworks. We advocate for a shift towards a more policy and institutional oriented research process.
Aurelio Padovezi, Unipd
Bridging social innovation with forest and landscape restoration.
The search for solutions to adapting and mitigating climate change, prevent mass species extinctions, and improve rural livelihood is one of today’s most urgent challenges. To succeed, a large number of social actors have to agree to engage and act collectively on Forest and Landscape Restoration (FLR), ensuring its dual goal of restoring ecological functionality and improving people’s life quality, based on a landscape approach. Although FLR has gained momentum globally, the experiences so far seem to be unable to completely overcome the socio-economic and governance challenges associated with the design and practical realization of effective initiatives. Market and policy failures – together with the inability of institutions to adapt and promote the structural changes required by society and growing social movements – drive the emergence of Social Innovation (SI). SI can be seen contemporarily as the process and the result of interaction between stakeholders in the construction of solutions to social needs and problems including those tackled by FLR in rural areas. Here, we propose five possible conceptual bridges between FLR and SI, which also represent macro-elements of a long-lasting and transformative Social Innovative Forest and Landscape Restoration (SI-FLR) theory of change, specifying an innovative FLR approach. We also advocate that SI-FLR should attend, firstly, sustainable livelihoods need to ensure the Social-Ecological Systems’ long-term resilience. By revealing these connections, we expect to contribute with decision-makers and project managers to improve the FLR initiatives underway and to spark the interest of other researchers to explore the many possibilities of SI-FLR.
Janina Priebe, Umeå University, Sweden
How to change for global change: Finding reflexive leverage points in transdisciplinary research on climate change and forests in local contexts
This article develops the concept of reflexive leverage points for transformation at the forest-climate nexus, from a local perspective, based on a transdisciplinary workshop with forest stakeholders in Sweden. The forest-climate nexus is tied to adaptation and mitigation strategies for global climate change, but it also relies on changes on the local level, where actors, institutions, and relations encompass multiple layers and long temporal horizons. The notion of reflexive leverage points brings the leverage points perspective into a dialogue with reflexivity. The workshop participants saw leverage, in the future, as lying mainly in technological innovation and increased material flows. In past transformations, pluralist values and cooperation were seen as crucial leverage. Reflection on the participants’ experiences of past transformations leads to the identification of reflexive leverage points that are not overshadowed by present-day global discourses on climate change, and they might support effective local action and, as a result, system change as a way to adapt to and mitigate global climate change.
Mi Sun Park and Hansol Lee, Seoul National University
Regional capacity and governance structure in industrializing wild-simulated ginseng in the Republic of Korea
Ginseng is a popular herb as traditional medicine over centuries. Wild ginseng grows naturally in mountains. It is endangered by overharvest due to high demand in the market. Responding to the demands and protecting wild ginseng, wild-simulated ginseng occurred as ginseng grown by artificially transplanting seeds or seedlings under forest in the mountains. Wild-simulated ginseng is a lucrative product among non-timber forest products. It contributes to increasing income of forest communities. This study attempted to examine how to develop wild-simulated ginseng industry at the local level in the Republic of Korea. Korea Forest Service controls the whole process of cultivating wild-simulated ginseng for keeping high quality. Three Korean municipalities with the high ratio of forest areas have created special zones for cultivating wild-simulated ginseng towards regional development. This study aims to analyse and compare regional capacity for industrializing wild-simulated ginseng in three counties, Hamyang, Pyeongchang and Hongcheon. Seven capitals were applied to measure regional capacity in wild-simulated ginseng industry; natural, human, financial, physical, social, cultural, and institutional capital. The selected counties have different strategies for developing wild-simulated ginseng industry based on multiple capitals. We interpret the allocation and structure of capitals as the regional capacity for developing wild-simulated ginseng industry at three local cases. The combination of capital and interaction and collaboration among multiple stakeholders were analysed depending on the governance theory. This research contributes to understanding forest governance structures for regional development based on non-timber forest products with the case of wild-simulated ginseng.